How do I save a polygon once I have created it in editor?

How do I save a polygon once I have created it in editor?

I am attempting to create a new polygon. I go to ArcCatolog>New>Shapefile and make sure Feature type is set to polygon. I create the polygon and if I click save edits or stop editing, it disappears. What am I doing wrong?

You need to finish the polygon's construction with double click, right-click>Finish Sketch or F2 before saving edits.

Interactive mapping at your fingertips

The MAGIC website provides authoritative geographic information about the natural environment from across government. The information covers rural, urban, coastal and marine environments across Great Britain. It is presented in an interactive map which can be explored using various mapping tools that are included. Natural England manages the service under the direction of a Steering Group who represent the MAGIC partnership organisations.


Natura 2000 Sites (England) and Common Pheasant and Red-legged Partridge releases - European sites and 500m buffer zones as at 31 May 2021 were added to MAGIC in this update. These two layers shows where from 31 May 2021, the release of common pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) or red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) into the wild is not allowed on English European sites or within 500 metres of their boundary (known as the buffer zone), except under a licence. The data will allow users to determine if they require a licence to release common pheasants and/or red-legged partridges within England. For further information please visit the sites below. GL43: licence to release common pheasants or red-legged partridges on European sites and within 500m of their boundary - GOV.UK ( The Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (Variation of Schedule 9) (England) (No. 2) Order 2021 ( More on Data updates can be found here

MAGIC was launched in 2002. Information covers rural, urban, coastal and marine environments across Great Britain. Presented in an interactive map which can be explored using various mapping tools.

More than 300 data layers are available on MAGIC. The MAGIC partnership organisations are Natural England, Defra, Environment Agency, Historic England, Forestry Commission and Marine Management Organisation.

MAGIC is a very popular website with 2,500 daily user sessions and 9 million maps generated each month across 8 themes, three different basemaps and three overview maps.

MAGIC was launched in 2002. Information covers rural, urban, coastal and marine environments across Great Britain. Presented in an interactive map which can be explored using various mapping tools.

More than 300 data layers are available on MAGIC. The MAGIC partnership organisations are Natural England, Defra, Environment Agency, Historic England, Forestry Commission and Marine Management Organisation.

MAGIC is a very popular website with 2,500 daily user sessions and 9 million maps generated each month across 8 themes, three different basemaps and three overview maps.

Methods of creating data

Digitizing data

Digitizing, the process of converting features into a digital format, is one way to create data. There are several ways to digitize new features. These include digitizing on-screen or heads up over an image, digitizing a hard copy of a map on a digitizing board, or using automated digitization.

Interactive, or heads-up digitization, is one of the most common methods. In this method, you display an aerial photograph, satellite image, or orthophotograph on-screen as a basemap, then you draw features, such as roads, buildings, or parcels, on top of it.

In hard-copy digitizing, you use a digitizing table connected to a computer that converts positions on the table surface into digital x,y coordinates as you trace them with a handheld puck (a pen or mouselike device).

Automatic digitization is another method of digitizing features. The ArcScan for ArcGIS extension enables you to perform automatic or interactive raster-to-vector data conversion with high precision and little or no operator intervention during the data capture stage.

Collecting data in the field

Some GIS data is directly captured in the field using a Global Positioning System (GPS) device. GPS units calculate their position using signals from satellites (and sometimes base stations). They vary in capability and accuracy, so be sure to use a GPS that is as accurate as the data with which it will be used. GPS units can be connected to handheld computers, laptops, or Tablet PCs to record data in the field.

Information Technology & People

Information Technology & People publishes work that is dedicated to understanding the implications of information technology as a tool, resource and format for people in society as much as in their daily work in organizations.

Information Technology & People has a longstanding reputation for publishing up to date, interesting, relevant and provocative research which opens up new directions for academic research. It is a source for emerging ideas which broadens the understanding of information technology and its relation to people. The journal retains an openness to multiple paradigms of research including most forms of mainstream empirical work. It has an ongoing tradition of being an outlet for international, qualitative and critical research in information systems and particularly welcomes cultural and geographic diversity in studies of new and old technologies. It looks for ways to better understand how people collectively conceptualize, invent, adapt, define and use technology, as well as how they are constrained by features of it.

Information technology pervades contemporary life, in the workplace, the marketplace and the home, as well as in national and regional economies. Institutional boundaries are shifting in response to dramatic new capabilities which are still unfolding at a rapid pace. Within the organization, information technology can now integrate all functional areas, as well as supplier and industry relationships worldwide.

Information Technology & People considers the significance of new social definitions of institutions, the social environment of production and technology implementation and on the human scale of social processes that are both the basis and the outcome of technological change.

With the launch of the AIS Transactions on Replication Research (, ITP will no longer accept papers which replicate existing studies for example, by applying them to a different technology or national context. This includes replications of TAM (Technology Adoption Model) studies. Such papers should be directed to the Transactions instead.


  • Jyoti Choudrie
    Hertfordshire Business School - UK
    [email protected]
  • Kevin Crowston
    Syracuse University - USA
    [email protected]
  • Yulin Fang
    City University of Hong Kong - People's Republic of China
    [email protected]
  • Edgar A Whitley
    London School of Economics and Political Science - UK
    [email protected]

Senior Editor

  • Margunn Aanestad
    University of Oslo - Norway
  • Ibrahim Akman
    Atilim University - Turkey
  • Nisreen Ameen
    Royal Holloway University of London - UK
  • Anteneh Ayanso
    Brock University - Canada
  • Carlo Bellini
    Universidade Federal da Paraíba, UFPB - Brazil
  • Roberta Bernardi
    University of Bristol - UK
  • Rui Bi
    School of Management and Marketing Charles Sturt University - Australia
  • Laurence Brooks
    Centre for Computing and Social Responsibility (CCSR), De Montfort University - UK
  • Deborah Bunker
    University of Sydney - Australia
  • Xusen Cheng
    Renmin University of China - People's Republic of China
  • Vincent Cho
    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University - Hong Kong
  • Crispin Coombs
    Loughborough University - UK
  • Denis Dennehy
    National University of Ireland Galway - Ireland
  • Eduardo Diniz
    Fundacao Getulio Vargas Escola de Administracao de Empresas de Sao Paulo - Brazil
  • Miria Grisot
    University of Oslo - Norway
  • Ake Gronlund
    Orebro University - Sweden
  • Xunhua Guo
    Tsinghua University - People's Republic of China
  • Nick Hajli
    Swansea University - UK
  • G. Hari Harindranath
    Royal Holloway, University of London, UK
  • Luke Houghton
    Griffith University - Australia
  • Vivian Huang
    University of Science and Technology of China - People's Republic of China
  • Eli Hustad
    University of Agder - Norway
  • Xiaoling Jin
    Shanghai University, People's Republic of China
  • Muhammad Mustafa Kamal
    Coventry University - UK
  • Weiling Ke
    School of Business, Clarkson University - USA
  • Dr David Kreps
    National University of Ireland, Galway - Ireland
  • One-Ki Daniel Lee
    University of Massachusetts Boston - USA
  • Guo Li
    Beijing Institute of Technology - People's Republic of China
  • Xin Li
    City University of Hong Kong - Hong Kong
  • Xixi Li
    University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB) - People's Republic of China
  • Ben Liu
    City University of Hong Kong - Hong Kong
  • Hefu Liu
    University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei - People's Republic of China
  • Vanessa Liu
    New Jersey Institute of Technology - USA
  • Shirin Madon
    London School of Economics and Political Science - UK
  • Patrick McCole
    Queen’s Management School, UK
  • Annette Mills
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand
  • Nathalie Mitev
    King's College London - UK
  • Andreea Molnar
    Swinburne University of Technology - Australia
  • Lorraine Morgan
    NUI Galway - Ireland
  • Jian Mou
    Pusan National University - Republic of Korea
  • Jacob Nørbjerg
    Copenhagen Business School - Denmark
  • Carol Xiaojuan Ou
    Tilburg University - Netherlands
  • Niki Panteli
    University of Bath - UK
  • Elaine Ramsey
    Ulster University - UK
  • Karen Renaud
    Abertay University - UK
  • Andreas Schroeder
    Aston University - UK
  • Mahmood Shah
    Newcastle Business School - UK
  • Wen-Lung Shiau
    Zhejiang University of Technology - People's Republic of China
  • Patrick Stacey
    Loughborough University - UK
  • Ayoung Suh
    Sungkyunkwan University - Republic of Korea
  • Yongqiang Sun
    School of Information Management, Wuhan University - People's Republic of China
  • Yuan Sun
    Zhejiang Gongshang University - People's Republic of China
  • Tracy Ann Sykes
    Walton College of Business University of Arkansas Fayetteville - USA
  • Barney Tan
    University of Sydney - Australia
  • Panayiota Tsatsou
    School of Media, Communication and Sociology, University of Leicester, UK
  • Nianxin Wang
    Jiangsu University of Science and Technology - People's Republic of China
  • Philip Wu
    Royal Holloway, University of London - UK
  • Xiao Xiao
    Copenhagen Business School - Denmark
  • Lynette (Kvasny) Yarger
    Pennsylvania State University - USA
  • Zhongyun (Phil) Zhou
    Tongji University - People's Republic of China

Editor Emeriti

  • Dr Robert Davison
    City University of Hong Kong - Hong Kong
  • Dr Eleanor Wynn
    Intel Corporation - USA

Editorial Assistant

Commissioning Editor

Journal Editorial Office (For queries related to pre-acceptance)

Supplier Project Manager (For queries related to post-acceptance)

Editorial Advisory Board

  • Adel Aladwani
    Kuwait University - Kuwait
  • David Avison
    ESSEC Business School - France
  • Michel Avital
    Copenhagen Business School - Denmark
  • Erran Carmel
    Kogod School of Business, American University - USA
  • Roger Clarke
    Australian National University - Australia
  • Francois Desjardins
    The University of Ontario Institute of Technology - Canada
  • Ole Hanseth
    University of Oslo - Norway
  • Ola Henfridsson
    Miami Herbert Business School, University of Miami - USA
  • Debra Howcroft
    University of Manchester - UK
  • Matthew Jones
    University of Cambridge - UK
  • Eija Helena Karsten
    Åbo Akademi University - Finland
  • Karlheinz Kautz
    University of Wollongong - Australia
  • Lars Mathiassen
    Georgia State University - USA
  • Rachel McLean
    Liverpool John Moores University - UK
  • Ramiro Montealegre
    University of Colorado at Boulder - USA
  • Michael Myers
    University of Auckland Business School - New Zealand
  • Bonnie Nardi
    University of California, Irvine - USA
  • Ilan Oshri
    Loughborough University - UK
  • Ray J Paul
    Brunel University - UK
  • Nancy Pouloudi
    Athens University of Economics & Business - Greece
  • Marlei Pozzebon
    HEC Montréal, Montréal/Québec - Canadá
  • Jeria L Quesenberry
    Carnegie Mellon University - USA
  • Helen Richardson
    Sheffield Hallam University - UK
  • Dan Robey
    Georgia State University - USA
  • Suprateek Sarker
    Washington State University - USA
  • Steve Sawyer
    Syracuse University - USA
  • Monideepa Tarafdar
    University of Massachusetts Amherst - USA
  • Jason Thatcher
    Temple University - USA
  • Eileen M. Trauth
    The Pennsylvania State University - USA
  • Mary Beth Watson-Manheim
    University of Illinois at Chicago - USA
  • Yingqin Zheng
    Royal Holloway, University of London - UK

Before you start

Author responsibilities

Our goal is to provide you with a professional and courteous experience at each stage of the review and publication process. There are also some responsibilities that sit with you as the author. Our expectation is that you will:

  • Respond swiftly to any queries during the publication process.
  • Be accountable for all aspects of your work. This includes investigating and resolving any questions about accuracy or research integrity
  • Treat communications between you and the journal editor as confidential until an editorial decision has been made.
  • Read about our research ethics for authorship. These state that you must:
    • Include anyone who has made a substantial and meaningful contribution to the submission (anyone else involved in the paper should be listed in the acknowledgements).
    • Exclude anyone who hasn’t contributed to the paper, or who has chosen not to be associated with the research.

    Research and publishing ethics

    Our editors and employees work hard to ensure the content we publish is ethically sound. To help us achieve that goal, we closely follow the advice laid out in the guidelines and flowcharts on the COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics) website.

    We have also developed our research and publishing ethics guidelines. If you haven’t already read these, we urge you to do so – they will help you avoid the most common publishing ethics issues.

    • Any manuscript you submit to this journal should be original. That means it should not have been published before in its current, or similar, form. Exceptions to this rule are outlined in our pre-print and conference paper policies. If any substantial element of your paper has been previously published, you need to declare this to the journal editor upon submission. Please note, the journal editor may use Crossref Similarity Check to check on the originality of submissions received. This service compares submissions against a database of 49 million works from 800 scholarly publishers.
    • Your work should not have been submitted elsewhere and should not be under consideration by any other publication.
    • If you have a conflict of interest, you must declare it upon submission this allows the editor to decide how they would like to proceed. Read about conflict of interest in our research and publishing ethics guidelines.
    • By submitting your work to Emerald, you are guaranteeing that the work is not in infringement of any existing copyright.

    Third party copyright permissions

    Prior to article submission, you need to ensure you’ve applied for, and received, written permission to use any material in your manuscript that has been created by a third party. Please note, we are unable to publish any article that still has permissions pending. The rights we require are:

    • Non-exclusive rights to reproduce the material in the article or book chapter.
    • Print and electronic rights.
    • Worldwide English-language rights.
    • To use the material for the life of the work. That means there should be no time restrictions on its re-use e.g. a one-year licence.

    We are a member of the International Association of Scientific, Technical, and Medical Publishers (STM) and participate in the STM permissions guidelines, a reciprocal free exchange of material with other STM publishers. In some cases, this may mean that you don’t need permission to re-use content. If so, please highlight this at the submission stage.

    Please take a few moments to read our guide to publishing permissions to ensure you have met all the requirements, so that we can process your submission without delay.

    Open access submissions and information

    All our journals currently offer two open access (OA) publishing paths gold open access and green open access.

    If you would like to, or are required to, make the branded publisher PDF (also known as the version of record) freely available immediately upon publication, you should select the gold open access route during the submission process.

    If you’ve chosen to publish gold open access, this is the point you will be asked to pay the APC (article processing charge). This varies per journal and can be found on our APC price list or on the editorial system at the point of submission. Your article will be published with a Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 user licence, which outlines how readers can reuse your work.

    Alternatively, if you would like to, or are required to, publish open access but your funding doesn’t cover the cost of the APC, you can choose the green open access, or self-archiving, route. As soon as your article is published, you can make the author accepted manuscript (the version accepted for publication) openly available, free from payment and embargo periods.

    For UK journal article authors - if you wish to submit your work accepted by us to REF 2021, you must make a ’closed deposit’ of your accepted manuscript to your respective institutional repository upon acceptance of your article. Articles accepted for publication after 1st April 2018 should be deposited as soon as possible, but no later than three months after the acceptance date. For further information and guidance, please refer to the REF 2021 website.

    You can find out more about our open access routes, our APCs and waivers and read our FAQs on our open research page.

    Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines

    We are a signatory of the Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines, a framework that supports the reproducibility of research through the adoption of transparent research practices. That means we encourage you to:

    • Cite and fully reference all data, program code, and other methods in your article.
    • Include persistent identifiers, such as a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), in references for datasets and program codes. Persistent identifiers ensure future access to unique published digital objects, such as a piece of text or datasets. Persistent identifiers are assigned to datasets by digital archives, such as institutional repositories and partners in the Data Preservation Alliance for the Social Sciences (Data-PASS).
    • Follow appropriate international and national procedures with respect to data protection, rights to privacy and other ethical considerations, whenever you cite data. For further guidance please refer to our research and publishing ethics guidelines. For an example on how to cite datasets, please refer to the references section below.

    Prepare your submission

    Manuscript support services

    We are pleased to partner with Editage, a platform that connects you with relevant experts in language support, translation, editing, visuals, consulting, and more. After you’ve agreed a fee, they will work with you to enhance your manuscript and get it submission-ready.

    This is an optional service for authors who feel they need a little extra support. It does not guarantee your work will be accepted for review or publication.

    Manuscript requirements

    Before you submit your manuscript, it’s important you read and follow the guidelines below. You will also find some useful tips in our structure your journal submission how-to guide.

    Article files should be provided in Microsoft Word format

    While you are welcome to submit a PDF of the document alongside the Word file, PDFs alone are not acceptable. LaTeX files can also be used but only if an accompanying PDF document is provided. Acceptable figure file types are listed further below.

    Article length / wordcount

    Articles should be up to a maximum of 10000 words in length. This includes all text, for example, the structured abstract, references, all text in tables, and figures and appendices.

    Please allow 280 words for each figure or table.

    Article title

    A concisely worded title should be provided.

    Author details

    The names of all contributing authors should be added to the ScholarOne submission please list them in the order in which you’d like them to be published. Each contributing author will need their own ScholarOne author account, from which we will extract the following details:

    • Author email address.
    • Author name. We will reproduce it exactly, so any middle names and/or initials they want featured must be included.
    • Author affiliation. This should be where they were based when the research for the paper was conducted.

    In multi-authored papers, it’s important that ALL authors that have made a significant contribution to the paper are listed. Those who have provided support but have not contributed to the research should be featured in an acknowledgements section. You should never include people who have not contributed to the paper or who don’t want to be associated with the research. Read about our research ethics for authorship.

    Biographies and acknowledgements

    If you want to include these items, save them in a separate Microsoft Word document and upload the file with your submission. Where they are included, a brief professional biography of not more than 100 words should be supplied for each named author.

    Research funding

    Your article must reference all sources of external research funding in the acknowledgements section. You should describe the role of the funder or financial sponsor in the entire research process, from study design to submission.

    Structured abstract

    All submissions must include a structured abstract, following the format outlined below.

    These four sub-headings and their accompanying explanations must always be included:

    The following three sub-headings are optional and can be included, if applicable:

    You can find some useful tips in our write an article abstract how-to guide.

    The maximum length of your abstract should be 250 words in total, including keywords and article classification (see the sections below).

    Your submission should include up to 12 appropriate and short keywords that capture the principal topics of the paper. Our Creating an SEO-friendly manuscript how to guide contains some practical guidance on choosing search-engine friendly keywords.

    Please note, while we will always try to use the keywords you’ve suggested, the in-house editorial team may replace some of them with matching terms to ensure consistency across publications and improve your article’s visibility.

    Article classification

    During the submission process, you will be asked to select a type for your paper the options are listed below. If you don’t see an exact match, please choose the best fit:

    You will also be asked to select a category for your paper. The options for this are listed below. If you don’t see an exact match, please choose the best fit:

    Research paper. Reports on any type of research undertaken by the author(s), including:

    • The construction or testing of a model or framework
    • Action research
    • Testing of data, market research or surveys
    • Empirical, scientific or clinical research
    • Papers with a practical focus

    Viewpoint. Covers any paper where content is dependent on the author's opinion and interpretation. This includes journalistic and magazine-style pieces.

    Technical paper. Describes and evaluates technical products, processes or services.

    Conceptual paper. Focuses on developing hypotheses and is usually discursive. Covers philosophical discussions and comparative studies of other authors’ work and thinking.

    Case study. Describes actual interventions or experiences within organizations. It can be subjective and doesn’t generally report on research. Also covers a description of a legal case or a hypothetical case study used as a teaching exercise.

    Headings must be concise, with a clear indication of the required hierarchy.

    The preferred format is for first level headings to be in bold, and subsequent sub-headings to be in medium italics.


    Notes or endnotes should only be used if absolutely necessary. They should be identified in the text by consecutive numbers enclosed in square brackets. These numbers should then be listed, and explained, at the end of the article.

    All figures (charts, diagrams, line drawings, webpages/screenshots, and photographic images) should be submitted electronically. Both colour and black and white files are accepted.

    There are a few other important points to note:

    • All figures should be supplied at the highest resolution/quality possible with numbers and text clearly legible.
    • Acceptable formats are .ai, .eps, .jpeg, .bmp, and .tif.
    • Electronic figures created in other applications should be supplied in their original formats and should also be either copied and pasted into a blank MS Word document, or submitted as a PDF file.
    • All figures should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and have clear captions.
    • All photographs should be numbered as Plate 1, 2, 3, etc. and have clear captions.

    Tables should be typed and submitted in a separate file to the main body of the article. The position of each table should be clearly labelled in the main body of the article with corresponding labels clearly shown in the table file. Tables should be numbered consecutively in Roman numerals (e.g. I, II, etc.).

    Give each table a brief title. Ensure that any superscripts or asterisks are shown next to the relevant items and have explanations displayed as footnotes to the table, figure or plate.

    All references in your manuscript must be formatted using one of the recognised Harvard styles. You are welcome to use the Harvard style Emerald has adopted – we’ve provided a detailed guide below. Want to use a different Harvard style? That’s fine, our typesetters will make any necessary changes to your manuscript if it is accepted. Please ensure you check all your citations for completeness, accuracy and consistency this enables your readers to exploit the reference linking facility on the database and link back to the works you have cited through CrossRef.

    Emerald’s Harvard referencing style

    References to other publications in your text should be written as follows:

    • Single author: (Adams, 2006)
    • Two authors: (Adams and Brown, 2006)
    • Three or more authors: (Adams et al., 2006) Please note, ‘et al' should always be written in italics.

    A few other style points. These apply to both the main body of text and your final list of references.

    • When referring to pages in a publication, use ‘p.(page number)’ for a single page or ‘pp.(page numbers)’ to indicate a page range.
    • Page numbers should always be written out in full, e.g. 175-179, not 175-9.
    • Where a colon or dash appears in the title of an article or book chapter, the letter that follows that colon or dash should always be lower case.
    • When citing a work with multiple editors, use the abbreviation ‘Ed.s’.

    At the end of your paper, please supply a reference list in alphabetical order using the style guidelines below. Where a DOI is available, this should be included at the end of the reference.

    Surname, initials (year), title of book, publisher, place of publication.

    e.g. Harrow, R. (2005), No Place to Hide, Simon & Schuster, New York, NY.

    Surname, initials (year), "chapter title", editor's surname, initials (Ed.), title of book, publisher, place of publication, page numbers.

    e.g. Calabrese, F.A. (2005), "The early pathways: theory to practice – a continuum", Stankosky, M. (Ed.), Creating the Discipline of Knowledge Management, Elsevier, New York, NY, pp.15-20.

    Surname, initials (year), "title of article", journal name, volume issue, page numbers.

    e.g. Capizzi, M.T. and Ferguson, R. (2005), "Loyalty trends for the twenty-first century", Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 22 No. 2, pp.72-80.

    For published
    conference proceedings

    Surname, initials (year of publication), "title of paper", in editor’s surname, initials (Ed.), title of published proceeding which may include place and date(s) held, publisher, place of publication, page numbers.

    e.g. Wilde, S. and Cox, C. (2008), “Principal factors contributing to the competitiveness of tourism destinations at varying stages of development”, in Richardson, S., Fredline, L., Patiar A., & Ternel, M. (Ed.s), CAUTHE 2008: Where the 'bloody hell' are we?, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Qld, pp.115-118.

    For unpublished
    conference proceedings

    Surname, initials (year), "title of paper", paper presented at [name of conference], [date of conference], [place of conference], available at: URL if freely available on the internet (accessed date).

    e.g. Aumueller, D. (2005), "Semantic authoring and retrieval within a wiki", paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC), 29 May-1 June, Heraklion, Crete, available at: (accessed 20 February 2007).

    Surname, initials (year), "title of article", working paper [number if available], institution or organization, place of organization, date.

    e.g. Moizer, P. (2003), "How published academic research can inform policy decisions: the case of mandatory rotation of audit appointments", working paper, Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds, Leeds, 28 March.

    For encyclopaedia entries
    (with no author or editor)

    Title of encyclopaedia (year), "title of entry", volume, edition, title of encyclopaedia, publisher, place of publication, page numbers.

    e.g. Encyclopaedia Britannica (1926), "Psychology of culture contact", Vol. 1, 13th ed., Encyclopaedia Britannica, London and New York, NY, pp.765-771.

    (for authored entries, please refer to book chapter guidelines above)

    For newspaper
    articles (authored)

    Surname, initials (year), "article title", newspaper, date, page numbers.

    e.g. Smith, A. (2008), "Money for old rope", Daily News, 21 January, pp.1, 3-4.

    For newspaper
    articles (non-authored)

    Newspaper (year), "article title", date, page numbers.

    e.g. Daily News (2008), "Small change", 2 February, p.7.

    For archival or other unpublished sources

    Surname, initials (year), "title of document", unpublished manuscript, collection name, inventory record, name of archive, location of archive.

    e.g. Litman, S. (1902), "Mechanism & Technique of Commerce", unpublished manuscript, Simon Litman Papers, Record series 9/5/29 Box 3, University of Illinois Archives, Urbana-Champaign, IL.

    If available online, the full URL should be supplied at the end of the reference, as well as the date that the resource was accessed.

    Surname, initials (year), “title of electronic source”, available at: persistent URL (accessed date month year).

    e.g. Weida, S. and Stolley, K. (2013), “Developing strong thesis statements”, available at: (accessed 20 June 2018)

    Standalone URLs, i.e. those without an author or date, should be included either inside parentheses within the main text, or preferably set as a note (roman numeral within square brackets within text followed by the full URL address at the end of the paper).

    Surname, initials (year), title of dataset, name of data repository, available at: persistent URL, (accessed date month year).

    e.g. Campbell, A. and Kahn, R.L. (2015), American National Election Study, 1948, ICPSR07218-v4, Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (distributor), Ann Arbor, MI, available at: (accessed 20 June 2018)

    Submit your manuscript

    There are a number of key steps you should follow to ensure a smooth and trouble-free submission.

    Double check your manuscript

    Before submitting your work, it is your responsibility to check that the manuscript is complete, grammatically correct, and without spelling or typographical errors. A few other important points:

    • Give the journal aims and scope a final read. Is your manuscript definitely a good fit? If it isn’t, the editor may decline it without peer review.
    • Does your manuscript comply with our research and publishing ethics guidelines?
    • Have you cleared any necessary publishing permissions?
    • Have you followed all the formatting requirements laid out in these author guidelines?
    • Does the manuscript contain any information that might help the reviewer identify you? This could compromise the blind peer review process. A few tips:
      • If you need to refer to your own work, use wording such as ‘previous research has demonstrated’ not ‘our previous research has demonstrated’.
      • If you need to refer to your own, currently unpublished work, don’t include this work in the reference list.
      • Any acknowledgments or author biographies should be uploaded as separate files.
      • Carry out a final check to ensure that no author names appear anywhere in the manuscript. This includes in figures or captions.

      You will find a helpful submission checklist on the website Think.Check.Submit.

      The submission process

      All manuscripts should be submitted through our editorial system by the corresponding author.

      A separate author account is required for each journal you submit to. If this is your first time submitting to this journal, please choose the Create an account or Register now option in the editorial system. If you already have an Emerald login, you are welcome to reuse the existing username and password here.

      Please note, the next time you log into the system, you will be asked for your username. This will be the email address you entered when you set up your account.

      In addition, we require all authors to provide an ORCiD iD when submitting to this journal. If you do not already have an ORCiD iD, please follow the instructions on how to create one here. ORCid iD allows all researchers to distinguish themselves with a career-long identifier that groups all of their work together. It will be embedded in your published article, along with a link to the ORCiD registry allowing others to easily match you with your work.

      During the submission process, you will have the opportunity to indicate whether you would like to publish your paper via the gold open access route.

      Visit the ScholarOne support centre for further help and guidance.

      What you can expect next

      You will receive an automated email from the journal editor, confirming your successful submission. It will provide you with a manuscript number, which will be used in all future correspondence about your submission. If you have any reason to suspect the confirmation email you receive might be fraudulent, please contact our Rights team.

      Post submission

      Review and decision process

      Each submission is checked by the editor. At this stage, they may choose to decline or unsubmit your manuscript if it doesn’t fit the journal aims and scope, or they feel the language/manuscript quality is too low.

      If they think it might be suitable for the publication, they will send it to at least two independent referees for double blind peer review. Once these reviewers have provided their feedback, the editor may decide to accept your manuscript, request minor or major revisions, or decline your work.

      While all journals work to different timescales, the goal is that the editor will inform you of their first decision within 60 days.

      During this period, we will send you automated updates on the progress of your manuscript via our submission system, or you can log in to check on the current status of your paper. Each time we contact you, we will quote the manuscript number you were given at the point of submission. If you receive an email that does not match these criteria, it could be fraudulent and we recommend you email [email protected] .

      If your submission is accepted

      Open access

      If you’ve chosen to publish gold open access, this is the point you will be asked to pay the APC (article processing charge). This varies per journal and can be found on our APC price list or on the editorial system at the point of submission. Your article will be published with a Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 user licence, which outlines how readers can reuse your work.

      For UK journal article authors - if you wish to submit your work accepted by Emerald to REF 2021, you must make a ‘closed deposit’ of your accepted manuscript to your respective institutional repository upon acceptance of your article. Articles accepted for publication after 1st April 2018 should be deposited as soon as possible, but no later than three months after the acceptance date. For further information and guidance, please refer to the REF 2021 website.


      All accepted authors are sent an email with a link to a licence form. This should be checked for accuracy, for example whether contact and affiliation details are up to date and your name is spelled correctly, and then returned to us electronically. If there is a reason why you can’t assign copyright to us, you should discuss this with your journal content editor. You will find their contact details on the editorial team section above.

      Proofing and typesetting

      Once we have received your completed licence form, the article will pass directly into the production process. We will carry out editorial checks, copyediting, and typesetting and then return proofs to you (if you are the corresponding author) for your review. This is your opportunity to correct any typographical errors, grammatical errors or incorrect author details. We can’t accept requests to rewrite texts at this stage.

      When the page proofs are finalised, the fully typeset and proofed version of record is published online. This is referred to as the EarlyCite version. While an EarlyCite article has yet to be assigned to a volume or issue, it does have a digital object identifier (DOI) and is fully citable. It will be compiled into an issue according to the journal’s issue schedule, with papers being added by chronological date of publication.

      How to share your paper

      Visit our author rights page to find out how you can reuse and share your work.

      To find tips on increasing the visibility of your published paper, read about how to promote your work.

      Correcting inaccuracies in your published paper

      Sometimes errors are made during the research, writing and publishing processes. When these issues arise, we have the option of withdrawing the paper or introducing a correction notice. Find out more about our article withdrawal and correction policies.

      Need to make a change to the author list? See our frequently asked questions (FAQs) below.

      Frequently asked questions

      Is there a submission fee
      for the journal?

      The only time we will ever ask you for money to publish in an Emerald journal is if you have chosen to publish via the gold open access route. You will be asked to pay an APC (article processing charge) once your paper has been accepted (unless it is a sponsored open access journal).

      At no other time will you be asked to contribute financially towards your article’s publication. If you haven’t chosen gold open access and you receive an email which appears to be from Emerald, asking you for payment to publish, please contact our Rights team.

      How can I become
      a reviewer for a journal?

      Please contact the editor for the journal, with a copy of your CV. You will find their contact details on the editorial team tab on this page.

      Who do I contact if I want to find out which volume and issue my accepted paper will appear in?

      Typically, papers are added to an issue according to their date of publication. If you would like to know in advance which issue your paper will appear in, please contact the content editor of the journal. You will find their contact details on the editorial team tab on this page. Once your paper has been published in an issue, you will be notified by email.

      Who do I contact if I have
      a query about my submission?

      Please email the journal editor – you will find their contact details on the editorial team tab on this page. If you ever suspect an email you’ve received from Emerald might not be genuine, you are welcome to verify it with the content editor for the journal, whose contact details can be found on the editorial team tab on this page. Alternatively, you can email our Rights team.

      Is my paper suitable
      for the journal?

      If you’ve read the aims and scope on the journal landing page and are still unsure whether your paper is suitable for the journal, please email the editor and include your paper's title and structured abstract. They will be able to advise on your manuscript’s suitability. You will find their contact details on the Editorial team tab on this page.

      How do I make a change to the list of authors once the manuscript has been submitted?

      Authorship and the order in which the authors are listed on the paper should be agreed prior to submission. If you need to make any changes to the author information once the paper is under review or has been accepted, we will look into your request and closely follow the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) authorship guidelines. We will also require a statement from each author confirming their agreement.

      How do I save a polygon once I have created it in editor? - Geographic Information Systems

      Getting Data into ArcGIS

      Every GIS uses certain types of data sources or file formats. Because most GIS software applications have been developed in competition with each other, many GIS software brands do not use other vendors' data types. Regardless of the brand name on your GIS, it will have limitations with using data of a particular types. In order to make effective use of your GIS, you will need to know what types of data are available for use within your software. Efforts are underway to make data sources that can be used across GIS platforms. See the Open GIS Consortium for details on this effort.

      And regardless of the brand of GIS software, it will have specific methods of making the data useful. For some older GIS packages, the interface is a command line, and data sources are accessed via commands and arguments. For other GIS software, such as ArcGIS, the data are accessible via a GUI.

      This section describes what data sources are available to ArcGIS, and how to load them in for use within an ArcGIS project.

      A layer is a set of similar features representing a class of features that exists in the world. For example, a single layer may represent a group of surface water sampling points, a transportation network (lines), a group of forest stands (polygons), or a digital elevation model (raster). A layer is not actually a data source, but is an object within the GIS that represents a data source that may be present on a local or networked drive, or the layer data source may exist on an internet mapping server.

      A layer should not simultaneously represent more than one class of features, although it may represent several subclasses (i.e., a layer should not represent roads and streams, but may represent roads, railroads, and trails as a transportation network).

      A map document can contain many data frames, and each data frame can contain many layers. Generally, the layers within a single data frame represent data for a common area of the earth. For example, you may have a single data frame containing layers that represent roads, streams, and forest stands for a single national forest, but it would be unlikely (or not very useful) to have a single data frame containing roads for the Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest and streams for the Gifford Pinchot National Forest. If you have layers that do not represent the same place on the earth, the layers will not overlap.

      Layer features represent objects that exist in the real world. The representation of real-world features is made by using points, lines, polygons, or raster cells.

      As was discussed in the Spatial Data Model, vector data represent real-world features as

      • Points (e.g., wells, utility poles, bird nests),
      • Lines (e.g., roads, streams, utility lines), and
      • Polygons (e.g., cities, forest stands, sections, counties).

      Raster data are usually used to represent phenomena that change continuously across space, such as pH, wind speed, or elevation.

      Layer features are symbolized according to the feature class of which they are members.

      • Point features are represented with markers, such as dots, crosses, or other graphical icons.
      • Line features are symbolized with thin, thick, dashed, or composite lines.
      • Polygons are symbolized with hollow, solid, or hatched patterns in a variety of colors
      • Rasters are symbolized with either discrete colors per class or in smooth color transitions for continuous value data.

      Certain disciplines expect to use formal symbols and colors for depiction of ground conditions (e.g., urban planners use certain colors for different densities of residential housing areas). Colors are also often used to indicate intensity (e.g., blue is cool or safe, while red is hot or unsafe). Line thickness may be used to denote importance of features (e.g., Interstate highways vs. local city streets). Sizes of point symbols can also reflect importance (e.g., major cities vs. rural towns).

      When layers are added to data frames, ArcGIS automatically assigns random colors and simple patterns and symbols. The user may alter the symbology of layer features at any time. The next topic, discussing Display of Layers, will focus closely on feature symbology.

      Spatial data sources for layers

      Spatial data for use in a GIS is composed of coordinate data (points, lines, polygons, and cells) coupled with associated attribute tables. Each coordinate feature is also represented by a record in an associated attribute table. Several different data sources may be used in ArcGIS, which are listed below:

      • ESRI Geodatabases
        • Geodatabases are the preferred data source for use in ArcGIS.
        • Geodatabases store many different vector and raster layers, as well as tables, layer files, topological relationships, models, and more in a single database file
        • Geodatabases are more flexible than other data sources
        • Geodatabases are easily shared among users
        • Geodatabases can be configured to validate data so erroneous values are not entered into the database.
        • Shapefiles are the second preferred vector data source for use in ArcGIS.
        • Shapefiles can be created within ArcGIS from any other supported vector data source.
        • Shapefiles can also be created from scratch in ArcGIS by adding graphical primitives to newly created, empty shape files.
        • Shapefiles are fully editable within ArcGIS (both the geometry and attribute data can be edited).
        • Shapefiles can be only point or line or polygon.
        • Shapefiles display rapidly within ArcGIS.
        • Most of the data you will encounter will be ArcInfo coverages, because ArcInfo has been the leading GIS software for several years.
        • Coverages can be composed of multiple feature types within a single data layer source (e.g., lines, polygons, label points, regions, routes, and annotations). However, to load multiple feature types from a single coverage data source, each feature type must be added as its own layer.
        • Coverages must be converted to shape files before coordinate editing within ArcGIS.
        • Map libraries and ArcStorm databases are another ArcInfo data storage format available within ArcGIS. None of the data in this course will be obtained from these formats.
        • Before the development of GIS, CAD systems were often used to store geographic data. In engineering applications, CAD systems are still used in preference to GIS. A tremendous amount of data are available in CAD formats
        • ArcGIS supports MicroStation DGN, AutoCAD DXF, and AutoCAD DWG formats.
        • CAD data can be converted to shapefiles within ArcGIS.
        • Another ESRI product, SDE, is beginning to come into wide and regular use. The SDE format allows GIS data to be stored completely within a relational database such as Oracle or SQL Server. SDE data are used for rapid access and client-server applications.
        • SDE layers can be displayed and queried in ArcGIS and converted to shapefiles.
        • We will have a small demonstration of SDE data sources.
        • ArcIMS is a server technology that serves individual layers or entire map services
        • We will have some demonstration of ArcIMS data sources.
        • VPF is a data format in use by the US military.

        Additional data sources for layers

        In addition to the vector data sources named above, other data sources include raster data and tabular data. Many raster data sources can be used as spatial data sources within ArcGIS or other GIS software, but only if accompanied by a world file, which provides georeferencing information. Most raster datasets have minimal attribute data structures, one exception being ArcInfo grids, which we will deal with in detail later in the course. For more information on the structure of a world file, see the ArcInfo documentation for Georeferencing Images in ArcInfo.

        • Raster Data Sources (common formats)
          • TIFF, uncompressed or LZW compressed.
            Tagged image file format (TIFF) files, and LZW compressed TIFF files can be used as data layers. TIFF is a very common image format, supported by many different brands of software.
          • ERDAS Imagine.
            Imagine is a specialized image processing software application developed mainly for analyzing remotely sensed satellite imagery. ArcGIS supports Imagine files with its Imagine Image Format Extension. Once the extension is loaded, Imagine files can be used as image data layers.
          • BSQ (band sequential), BIL (band interleave by line), and BIP (band interleave by pixel).
            These formats are common, software and platform independent image formats.
          • Sun raster files
            Sun raster files are a proprietary format developed by Sun Microsystems. Sun UNIX computers were common platforms used for GIS and image processing before the PC revolution. Many software applications still write out in Sun RS format.
          • BMP
            The Windows BMP file is the standard image format under Microsoft Windows.
          • Run-length compressed files
            RLC files are also a less-commonly used format, but many satellite images are available in RLC format, so this is supported by ArcGIS.
          • JPEG compressed
            The standard developed by the Joint Photographers' Expert Group features a high degree of compression while maintaining image high image quality (when viewed with the human eye). JPEG images work very well with photographic data.
          • Image catalogs
            ArcInfo's image catalog format assembles a series of adjacent image files into a single, seamless, virtual image. ArcGIS treats image catalogs as single image data layer sources.
          • ArcInfo grids
            GRID is ArcInfo's native raster analysis application. The raster datasets used by GRID are also called grids. Grids are composed of a typical raster coordinate dataset, but the values for cells in integer grids are related to a value attribute table (VAT). The VAT can be loaded into an ArcGIS project.
          • Here is a list of all raster formats available to ArcGIS 9:
            • ADRG Image (.IMG)
            • ADRG Overview (.OVR)
            • ADRG Legend (.LGG)
            • ESRI GRID
            • ESRI SDE Raster
            • ESRI Raster Catalogs (Image Catalogs)
            • ERDAS IMAGINE (.IMG)
            • ERDAS 7.5 Lan (.LAN)
            • ERDAS 7.5 GIS (.GIS)
            • ERDAS Raw (.RAW)
            • ESRI Band Interleaved by Line (.BIL)
            • ESRI Band Interleaved by Pixel (.BIP)
            • ESRI Band Sequential (.BSQ)
            • ESRI GRID Stack (<directory>)
            • ESRI GRID Stack File (.STK)
            • Windows Bitmap (.BMP)
            • Controlled Image Base, CIB
            • Compressed ARC Digitized Raster Graphics, CADRG
            • Digital Geographic Information Exchange Standard (DIGEST)
            • DTED Level 0, 1, and 2 (.DT*)
            • ER Mapper (.ERS)
            • Graphic Interchange Format, GIF (.GIF)
            • ADRG Image (.IMG)
            • ADRG Overview (.OVR)
            • ADRG Legend (.LGG)
            • Intergraph raster file (.CIT or .COT)
            • JPEG File Interchange Format, JIFF (.JPG) and JPEG 2000 (.JP2)
            • National Image Transfer Format, NITF 2.0 and 2.1 (.NTF)
            • Portable Network Graphics (.gif)
            • LizardTech MrSID and MrSID Gen 3 (.SID)
            • Tagged Image File Format, TIFF (.TIF)

            • ADS
            • DFAD
            • DIME
            • DLG
            • ETAK
            • GIRAS
            • IGDS
            • IGES
            • MOSS
            • S-57
            • SDTS (Point, Raster, and Vector)
            • SLF
            • TIGER (through v2002)
            • Sun Raster
            • Direct conversion of the following formats into native ArcView and ArcEditor formats:
            • AGF
            • MIF
            • SDTS (Point and Raster)

            Creating a map document & data frame

            ArcMap documents are used mainly to display, manipulate, and analyze the coordinate parts of spatial data (though attribute analysis and manipulations are possible as well). To create a map document, open a new or ArcMap session. If you open a new document, it will be called Untitled by default. Once you save a project, it will be called by the name you give it.

            A map document always contains at least one data frame.

            By default, the new data frame will be called Layers. The data frame name can be changed by altering Properties for the layer.

            Adding a feature layer to a data frame

            Once a data frame is created, you can add spatial data layers to it. When layers are loaded into a data frame, the source data are not copied instead, the map document file contains references to the disk location of the layer source. In order to maintain the integrity of the project, it is important that you do not move files around the disk. If layer source files have moved, the ArcGIS project will not find them.

            You can add feature (vector) layers and image layers to a data frame. If the CAD Reader extension is active, CAD data sources will be available as feature data sources. If the Spatial Analyst extension is loaded, you can also add grid layers to data frames. With the 3D Analyst extension, you can load TIN data sources. We will cover grid and TIN data sources later in the course.

            Use the Add Layer button or choose File > Add Data from the menu. This opens the Add Data dialog. Any data sources that can be added to the ArcMap document will be listed. Each different data source has an icon indicating its data type (point, line, polygon, multi-layer, raster, table, etc.). As you become more familiar with ArcGIS you will be able to tell at a glance the data type for each data source.

            Click on a data layer to select it. If you want to add more than 1 layer, hold the <CTRL> key down as you click more than one data source. Each separate data source that is added becomes its own layer in the data frame. You can add a single data layer multiple times to a data frame if you wish to display different instances or subsets of the same layer with different symbology.

            When the layers are added to the data frame, they are usually assigned a simple symbol in a random color. You can change the symbology of layer displays by using the legend editor. Layers are turned off when they are added to the data frame. In order to see the layers, you need to check the layer box on in the data frame Table of Contents.

            Data sources with multiple feature types

            Some data sources contain multiple feature types. A single ArcInfo data source, for example, may contain label polygon, arc, label point, annotation, node, region, and route features, or a single geodatabase may contain several different data sources. Multi-feature data sources are indicated in the Add Layer dialog with a special icon indicating the presence of multiple layers within the data source next to the data source name. To view which data types are in these, double-click the icon. The data source will open, and a list of individual feature classes contained within the data source will be listed. Any of the listed layers can be added to the project.

            Each of the individual feature data sources within the folder has a particular feature type and meaning in relationship to the concept of the data model as well as the particular dataset. You can see that each feature class has an icon indicating a single layer.

            Adding a layer from x,y coordinates

            If you have an ASCII file containing a series of records which include x,y coordinates, the data file can be added to the project as a table, and an event layer can be created from the coordinates. If there are other fields of data in the ASCII file, these will automatically be added to the attribute table for the new point layer.

            The event layer is a point layer, whose points are placed based on their x,y coordinates. Additional data from the original ASCII file can be added to the event layer attribute table via a join or link.

            Layer tables exist for every feature class (i.e., point, line, or polygon) layer added to a data frame. The records in the attribute table have a one-to-one correspondence to the spatial features in the coordinate part of the layer. The records describe characteristics of each of the spatial features.

            Because the attribute tables are so closely associated with the spatial features, ArcGIS automatically loads the layer attribute tables to the project, whether the attribute table is open or not. You can open the attribute table for a layer by right-clicking the layer name and selecting Open Attribute Table.

            Layer tables will contain one or more fields, depending on their data source:

              This is the sequential feature ID number.

            When you have completed an ArcGIS session, or are going to take a break, you should save your project. When a project is saved, all the documents in the project are saved. This updates the project.mxd file (where project is the name of your map document file). The map document file specifies source data file location references, window positions, feature and record selections, joins, links, colors, and symbols. In essence, saving a project captures the current state of the map document when the save is made. When you reopen a map document, it will be in the same state as when you saved it

            As with any computer application, you should get in the habit of saving your projects very frequently. ArcGIS is sometimes unstable, and recreating a project from scratch can be a time-consuming, tedious, frustrating task.

            A polygon represents an area enclosed by a closed path (or loop), which is defined by a series of coordinates. Polygon objects are similar to Polyline objects in that they consist of a series of coordinates in an ordered sequence. Polygons are drawn with a stroke and a fill. You can define custom colors, weights, and opacities for the edge of the polygon (the stroke) and custom colors and opacities for the enclosed area (the fill). Colors should be indicated in hexadecimal HTML format. Color names are not supported.

            Polygon objects can describe complex shapes, including:

            • Multiple non-contiguous areas defined by a single polygon.
            • Areas with holes in them.
            • Intersections of one or more areas.

            To define a complex shape, you use a polygon with multiple paths.

            Note: The Data layer provides a simple way of drawing polygons. It handles polygon winding for you, making it easier to draw polygons with holes. See the documentation for the Data layer.

            Add a polygon

            Because a polygonal area may include several separate paths, the Polygon object's paths property specifies an array of arrays, each of type MVCArray . Each array defines a separate sequence of ordered LatLng coordinates.

            For simple polygons consisting of only one path, you can construct a Polygon using a single array of LatLng coordinates. The Maps JavaScript API will convert the simple array into an array of arrays upon construction when storing it within the paths property. The API provides a simple getPath() method for polygons consisting of one path.

            The polygon's editable property specifies whether users can edit the shape. See user-editable shapes below. Similarly, you can set the draggable property to allow users to drag the shape.

            Digitizing an existing layer¶

            By default, QGIS loads layers read-only. This is a safeguard to avoid accidentally editing a layer if there is a slip of the mouse. However, you can choose to edit any layer as long as the data provider supports it (see Exploring Data Formats and Fields), and the underlying data source is writable (i.e., its files are not read-only).

            Restrict edit permission on layers within a project

            From the Project ‣ Project properties ‣ Identify tab, You can choose to set any layer read-only regardless the provider permission. This can be a handy way, in a multi-users environment to avoid unauthorized users to mistakenly edit layers (e.g., shapefile), hence potentially corrupt data. Note that this setting only applies inside the current project.

            In general, tools for editing vector layers are divided into a digitizing and an advanced digitizing toolbar, described in section Advanced digitizing. You can select and unselect both under View ‣ Toolbars ‣. Using the basic digitizing tools, you can perform the following functions:

            Icon Purpose Icon Purpose
            Current edits Toggle editing
            Add Feature: Capture Point Add Feature: Capture Line
            Add Feature: Capture Polygon Move Feature
            Add Circular String Add Circular String By Radius
            Node Tool Delete Selected
            Cut Features Copy Features
            Paste Features Save layer edits

            Table Editing: Vector layer basic editing toolbar

            Note that while using any of the digitizing tools, you can still zoom or pan in the map canvas without losing the focus on the tool.

            All editing sessions start by choosing the Toggle editing option found in the context menu of a given layer, from the attribute table dialog, the digitizing toolbar or the Edit menu.

            Once the layer is in edit mode, additional tool buttons on the editing toolbar will become available and markers will appear at the vertices of all features unless Show markers only for selected features option under Settings ‣ Options. ‣ Digitizing menu is checked.

            Save Regularly

            Remember to Save Layer Edits regularly. This will also check that your data source can accept all the changes.

            Adding Features¶

            You can use the Add Feature , Add Feature or Add Feature icons on the toolbar to add new feature (point, line and polygon) into the current layer.

            The next buttons Add circular string or Add circular string by radius allow users to add line or polygon features with a circular geometry.

            To create features with these tools, you first digitize the geometry then enter its attributes. To digitize the geometry, left-click on the map area to create the first point of your new feature.

            For linear or curved geometries, keep on left-clicking for each additional point you wish to capture or use automatic tracing capability to accelerate the digitization. You can switch back and forth between linear Add feature tool and curved Add circular string. tools to create compound curved geometry. Pressing Delete or Backspace key reverts the last node you add. When you have finished adding points, right-click anywhere on the map area to confirm you have finished entering the geometry of that feature.

            Curved geometries are stored as such only in compatible data provider

            Although QGIS allows to digitize curved geometries within any editable data format, you need to be using a data provider (e.g. PostGIS, GML or WFS) that supports curves to have features stored as curved, otherwise QGIS segmentizes the circular arcs. The memory layer provider also supports curves.

            Customize the digitizing rubber band

            While capturing polygon, the by-default red rubber band can hide underlying features or places you’d like to capture a point. This can be fixed by setting a lower opacity (or alpha channel) to the rubber band’s Fill Color in Settings ‣ Options ‣ Digitizing menu. You can also avoid the use of the rubber band by checking Don’t update rubber band during node editing.

            The attribute window will appear, allowing you to enter the information for the new feature. Figure_edit_values shows setting attributes for a fictitious new river in Alaska. However, in the Digitizing menu under the Settings ‣ Options menu, you can also activate:

              Suppress attributes pop-up windows after each created feature to avoid the form opening
            • or Reuse last entered attribute values to have fields automatically filled at the opening of the form and just have to type changing values.

            Enter Attribute Values Dialog after digitizing a new vector feature

            With the Move Feature(s) icon on the toolbar, you can move existing features.

            Node Tool¶

            For shapefile-based or MapInfo layers as well as SpatiaLite, PostgreSQL/PostGIS, MSSQL Spatial, and Oracle Spatial tables, the Node Tool provides manipulation capabilities of feature vertices similar to CAD programs. It is possible to simply select multiple vertices at once and to move, add or delete them altogether. The node tool also works with ‘on the fly’ projection turned on and supports the topological editing feature. This tool is, unlike other tools in QGIS, persistent, so when some operation is done, selection stays active for this feature and tool.

            It is important to set the property Settings ‣ Options ‣ Digitizing ‣ Search Radius: to a number greater than zero. Otherwise, QGIS will not be able to tell which vertex is being edited and will display a warning.

            Vertex Markers

            The current version of QGIS supports three kinds of vertex markers: ‘Semi-transparent circle’, ‘Cross’ and ‘None’. To change the marker style, choose Options from the Settings menu, click on the Digitizing tab and select the appropriate entry.

            Basic operations¶

            Start by activating the Node Tool and selecting a feature by clicking on it. Red boxes will appear at each vertex of this feature.

            • Selecting vertices: You can select vertices by clicking on them one at a time, by clicking on an edge to select the vertices at both ends, or by clicking and dragging a rectangle around some vertices. When a vertex is selected, its color changes to blue. To add more vertices to the current selection, hold down the Ctrl key while clicking. Hold down Ctrl when clicking to toggle the selection state of vertices (vertices that are currently unselected will be selected as usual, but also vertices that are already selected will become unselected).
            • Adding vertices: To add a vertex, simply double click near an edge and a new vertex will appear on the edge near to the cursor. Note that the vertex will appear on the edge, not at the cursor position therefore, it should be moved if necessary.
            • Deleting vertices: Select the vertices and click the Delete key. Deleting all the vertices of a feature generates, if compatible with the datasource, a geometryless feature. Note that this doesn’t delete the complete feature, just the geometry part To delete a complete feature use the Delete Selected tool.
            • Moving vertices: Select all the vertices you want to move, click on a selected vertex or edge and drag in the direction you wish to move. All the selected vertices will move together. If snapping is enabled, the whole selection can jump to the nearest vertex or line.

            Each change made with the node tool is stored as a separate entry in the Undo dialog. Remember that all operations support topological editing when this is turned on. On-the-fly projection is also supported, and the node tool provides tooltips to identify a vertex by hovering the pointer over it.

            Move features with precision

            The Move Feature tool doesn’t currently allow to snap features while moving. Using the Node Tool , select ALL the vertices of the feature, click a vertex, drag and snap it to a target vertex: the whole feature is moved and snapped to the other feature.

            The Vertex Editor¶

            With activating the Node Tool on a feature, QGIS opens the Vertex Editor panel listing all the vertices of the feature with their x, y (z, m if applicable) coordinates and r (for the radius, in case of circular geometry). Simply select a row in the table does select the corresponding vertex in the map canvas, and vice versa. Simply change a coordinate in the table and your vertex position is updated. You can also select multiple rows and delete them altogether.

            Vertex editor panel showing selected nodes

            Cutting, Copying and Pasting Features¶

            Selected features can be cut, copied and pasted between layers in the same QGIS project, as long as destination layers are set to Toggle editing beforehand.

            Transform polygon into line and vice-versa using copy/paste

            Copy a line feature and paste it in a polygon layer: QGIS pastes in the target layer a polygon whose boundary corresponds to the closed geometry of the line feature. This is a quick way to generate different geometries of the same data.

            Features can also be pasted to external applications as text. That is, the features are represented in CSV format, with the geometry data appearing in the OGC Well-Known Text (WKT) format. WKT and GeoJSON features from outside QGIS can also be pasted to a layer within QGIS.

            When would the copy and paste function come in handy? Well, it turns out that you can edit more than one layer at a time and copy/paste features between layers. Why would we want to do this? Say we need to do some work on a new layer but only need one or two lakes, not the 5,000 on our big_lakes layer. We can create a new layer and use copy/paste to plop the needed lakes into it.

            As an example, we will copy some lakes to a new layer:

            1. Load the layer you want to copy from (source layer)
            2. Load or create the layer you want to copy to (target layer)
            3. Start editing for target layer
            4. Make the source layer active by clicking on it in the legend
            5. Use the Select Features by area or single click tool to select the feature(s) on the source layer
            6. Click on the Copy Features tool
            7. Make the destination layer active by clicking on it in the legend
            8. Click on the Paste Features tool
            9. Stop editing and save the changes

            What happens if the source and target layers have different schemas (field names and types are not the same)? QGIS populates what matches and ignores the rest. If you don’t care about the attributes being copied to the target layer, it doesn’t matter how you design the fields and data types. If you want to make sure everything - the feature and its attributes - gets copied, make sure the schemas match.

            Congruency of Pasted Features

            If your source and destination layers use the same projection, then the pasted features will have geometry identical to the source layer. However, if the destination layer is a different projection, then QGIS cannot guarantee the geometry is identical. This is simply because there are small rounding-off errors involved when converting between projections.

            Copy string attribute into another

            If you have created a new column in your attribute table with type ‘string’ and want to paste values from another attribute column that has a greater length the length of the column size will be extended to the same amount. This is because the GDAL Shapefile driver starting with GDAL/OGR 1.10 knows to auto-extend string and integer fields to dynamically accommodate for the length of the data to be inserted.

            Deleting Selected Features¶

            If we want to delete an entire feature (attribute and geometry), we can do that by first selecting the geometry using the regular Select Features by area or single click tool. Selection can also be done from the attribute table. Once you have the selection set, press Delete or Backspace key or use the Delete Selected tool to delete the features. Multiple selected features can be deleted at once.

            The Cut Features tool on the digitizing toolbar can also be used to delete features. This effectively deletes the feature but also places it on a “spatial clipboard”. So, we cut the feature to delete. We could then use the Paste Features tool to put it back, giving us a one-level undo capability. Cut, copy, and paste work on the currently selected features, meaning we can operate on more than one at a time.

            Saving Edited Layers¶

            When a layer is in editing mode, any changes remain in the memory of QGIS. Therefore, they are not committed/saved immediately to the data source or disk. If you want to save edits to the current layer but want to continue editing without leaving the editing mode, you can click the Save Layer Edits button. When you turn editing mode off with Toggle editing (or quit QGIS for that matter), you are also asked if you want to save your changes or discard them.

            If the changes cannot be saved (e.g., disk full, or the attributes have values that are out of range), the QGIS in-memory state is preserved. This allows you to adjust your edits and try again.

            Data Integrity

            It is always a good idea to back up your data source before you start editing. While the authors of QGIS have made every effort to preserve the integrity of your data, we offer no warranty in this regard.

            Saving multiple layers at once¶

            This feature allows the digitization of multiple layers. Choose Save for Selected Layers to save all changes you made in multiple layers. You also have the opportunity to Rollback for Selected Layers, so that the digitization may be withdrawn for all selected layers. If you want to stop editing the selected layers, Cancel for Selected Layer(s) is an easy way.

            The same functions are available for editing all layers of the project.

            Use transaction group to edit, save or rollback multiple layers changes at once

            When working with layers from the same PostGreSQL database, activate the Automatically create transaction groups where possible option in Project ‣ Project Properties ‣ Data Sources to sync their behavior (enter or exit the edit mode, save or rollback changes at the same time).

            Try it yourself!

            1. Open a public table like 2008-9 California high school graduates' college enrollment.
            2. Click "[+] > Add map" to create a customizable map of the data in the table.
            3. Click the "Change feature styles" button.

            The gradient defaults are 0 to 100, but the graduation rates data in this table range from about 31 to 81%. You can customize the gradient in this map based on this data:

            1. Select "Polygons > Fill color".
            2. Click the "Gradient" tab.
            3. Click the radio button next to "Show a gradient".
            4. Use the pull-down menu next to "Column" and choose "Percentage of total high school graduates enrolled in post-secondary institutions".
            5. Enter "31" the text field next to "From" and "81" in the text field next to "Through".
            6. Customize the color gradient to transition from a shade of light green to dark green. To achieve a darker shade of green, use the opacity text box in the color pull-down menu to adjust the 50% opacity to 100%.
            7. Click "Save".

            Your customized map shows a green gradient representing the percentage of California high school graduates enrolled in post-secondary institutions. The default red polygon indicates a row with data outside the defined gradient. Tip: Apply filters to remove such rows from the map.

            You may also want to change the polygon border color to help the polygons pop out more on the page. To change the border color from the default charcoal gray color, return to the "Change map styles" panel.

            Prepping a Shapefile for Conversion to Google Fusion Tables

            Update: more detail in the comment from Josh Livni below but if you supply a .prj, Shape Escape will reproject your data into the proper projection for you.

            Since Google Maps uses a a spherical mercator projection based on WGS84 known as Web Mercator Auxiliary Sphere (WMAS), make sure your shapefile is in this projection before uploading to Shape Escape. If it’s not, you will need to reproject your shapefile and create a new shapefile in the correct projection in order to properly align your geographic data with Google Maps. If you have access to ArcGIS, the easiest way to accomplish this is to load your shapefile into a data frame that already has its project set to WMAS and then export out a new shapefile in the new projection.

            To set the correct data frame projection, first load an instance of ArcGIS. Then right click on the layers icon in the table of contents and select “properties”. Navigate to the coordinate system tab. From there, find the “select a coordinate system box” and drill down through the folders: Predefined –> Projected Coordinate Systems –> World. In the World folder, scroll down until you find WGS 1984 Web Mercator Auxiliary Sphere to select.

            Now add the shapefile you need to reproject. Right click on the shapefile and navigate to Data –> Export data. Then export the shapefile and check the box that says “use the same coordinate system as the data frame”. Designate the location on your computer where you want to save your new shapefile to.

            Once you have the shapefile in the correct format, you need to package it so it can be uploaded to Shape Escape. In order to be uploaded for conversion, shapefiles have to be zipped and contain four required files: prj, shp, shx, and dbf. These files contain the projection information (.prj), geometry (.shp), shape index (.shx), and attribute information (.dbf) for your shapefile. Compress all four files into a Zipped file. Now you are ready to upload your shapefile for conversion.

            Users occasionally (often?) change their minds. If you've been saving their work along the way, you need to provide an easy way to reverse that work. There are several features that make this work well, especially in data-critical applications.

            • Field-level undo
            • Cancel and discard all changes
            • Change log with ability to revert (for admins)

            I feel there needs to be a single point where I can confirm ALL my input has correctly saved. Your auto-save example does not have that - imagine a longer, more complicated form, and you put some invalid value in one of the fields, you correct it, there is a small delay between typing and saving, etc. Maybe the connection is unreliable and saves randomly fail, etc. How do I know for certain everything is correctly saved?

            I think you should consider how Google Docs and Office 365 does it. In the toolbar they have labels which shows the status (e.g. "Saved 2 minutes ago", "Saving. ", "Not saved - no connection to server lost, trying to reconnect" (or something like that).

            For your form, you could put this at the bottom of the form near where you would have put the Save button. The information could be:

            • "Saving changes. "
            • "All values have been saved automatically X minutes ago"
            • "Some values have not been saved because they have not been properly filled, please check the form."
            • "Some values have not been saved because (error)"

            I think this should be at least as prominent as a Save button would have been - maybe a large green tick, bright read X if it failed, some spinner graphic if it's progressing (next to the text description)

            I've tried it in an auto save form but found that having a button at the bottom of a form was logical and expected for most users. In my case it would be a 'publish and close' button. Users might feel insecure about their content being saved without approval. That's why it is a good idea to have the save button. It gives users a feeling of control over their content.

            It's like the "I'm feeling lucky button" from Google. People expect it to be there even though it does not show different results than when you use the 'normal search button'. In fact, if you have javascript enabled you don't even get the chance to press it because Google shows results when you start typing.

            Sometimes things exist not because they still make sense, but because their presence is an affordance -- i.e. it works not because it's good, but because the visitor understands what it is, what it does, and how to use it, because they've been inculcated over years with this knowledge.

            Forms without a save button have become more common recently based on my personal experience.

            I have observed more companies using such forms that don't have save buttons. One area that this seems common is with 'settings'.

            Initially I found these forms very confusing - basically "where's the save button" anxiety. Initially I would go to other tabs, log out, log in, make sure the data stayed Over time, now I've experienced this a bunch of time, I've got used to it and am no longer confused.
            Similarly for the ajax feedback messages for changes as they are made - initially I needed and wanted this feedback. Over time I've got used to newer forms not giving me that feedback. I still prefer the feedback myself but I have got used to forms where I don't get it

            This is one example of an interesting category - user input that doesn't work well for folks because of their existing mental model but once they get used to it their mental model changes and the change becomes acceptable - even desirable !

            If you really think auto-save is the way to go, I would say do not put a save button. But make sure you indicate in some way that the data is saved.

            As scunliffe pointed out, for the use case that you showed, automatic saving is a bad idea. If someone backs out, a partial will be saved, potentially forever. To avoid this, you could ask the user whether or not to save the partial before they exit the page, but in my opinion that would degrade the user experience more than having a save button.

            Besides of user experience issues shown in other answers, you must consider performance and security issues here:

            1. Every time your auto save event trigs, your form executes the save to database command. Now if you have 10 fields in your form, then you should expect your server to run this command at least 10 times more than having a Save button. Since you have a web page, you have the potential to reach for millions of users making this not a trivial thing.
            2. Since your page is always requesting for send/receive little packages of data, user’s system may allocate an unnecessary amount of data communication resources to you page/form.
            3. Since you almost gave away the control to save to database event, you could not, at least in an easy way, check if the sender is a human or an automated peace of code. Therefore, your page may be in higher risk of denial of service attacks.
            4. As pointed by scunliffe you database may have thousands of partial scrap data, reducing data quality and database overall performance.

            At last but not least: “. up until that point the user expects that they haven't committed to anything.” (scunlife)

            Use both. Except auto save should not directly go to new/edited entry, but to its draft version. If user closes form for whatever reason (or in case of crash) and then decides that he wants those changes after all - you pull out saved draft and let user continue from where he left.

            Buttons below the form should let user finalize the changes - i.e. commit to base, publish, send, whatever, and revert to last committed version where applicable.

            This might be different in some scenarios, but often incomplete data isn't useful and can even be confusing, especially if user publishes it in some way for other people to see as opposed to editing some personal database, so it's better to still have some way for editor to signal "it's ready for consumption" instead of pushing every little thing to outside world automatically.

            That's, IMO, is most intuitive approach. That's how GMail works with autosaving your drafts all the time, but sending only when you directly instruct it to. Even the comment form where I write this answer right now works this way - whatever I type is continuously saved as draft and never lost, but I need to explicitly push "post your answer" when I'm done.

            Watch the video: How to Convert point to Polygon In ArcGIS